Friday, February 21, 2020
Dr Harold Shipman - Essay Example According to the study this habit of keeping to himself was copied from the mother who was known as Vera. Shipman was a comparatively bright student in school but turned out to be mediocre in his upper level in school. On January 2000, he was found guilty of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment. He died after hanging himself in prison in 2004. His father was a lorry driver and his mother was a house wife. He was a very good rugby player. The motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death from lung cancer had very devastating effects on the psyche of Harold. He met his wife at the university in Leeds where he was studying medicine. After completing his medical studies, he was employed at Rochdale Canal Commission and later joined Todmorden. It was while here that his signs of criminal behavior began to be noticed. He begun having blackouts that were at early stages linked to epilepsy. However, it was later discovered that the fits were caused by a drug called pethidine. He was administering this drug to the patients. He was also later accused of forgery. The news of his crimes was made public in 1998. From this paper it is clear that psychological explanations of crime are basically a reflection of very many ranges of perspectives in psychology.It is mainly pegged on individual differences. However, crime can occur in a social context therefore factors like ethnicity, gender as well as other dynamics can be ignored. The contribution of psychology is therefore very important in broadening our understanding of crimes and criminals. Earlier theories explaining criminal behavior explain criminal behavior to be as a result of defects existing in an individual. These defects are often viewed as either biological as well as psychological in nature. These defects are responsible for separating the criminal from the being a law abiding citizen.Ã
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Women rights in Saudi Arabia - Research Paper Example In this case it spells out that countries which have ratified the international conventions should take special measures and ensure that their governments take strict measures on the main actors who interfere with the rights of the women. Women bring a lot of contributions in the economy of the country in this case their participation in the development arena will only be enhanced if their rights are protected. Saudi Arabia is one country on focus when it comes to women rights. As an Arab country, women have been subjected to inhuman treatment. The government strictly abides by the strict Islamic laws which have continued to suppress women and placed them in subordinate positions. Despite the country ratification of the convention against torture, their still continues to be high cases of torture experienced by the minorities of which women fall under this category. In Saudi Arabia, women have been subjected to inhuman treatment in several ways. Women in Saudi Arabia are not given th e same preferential treatment as that of men. For instance, women in Saudi Arabia are not allowed to drive freely as men do. ... King Abdullah once quoted that by the year 2015 women would be allowed to participate in the elections process which is yet to be realized. With these attempts women in Saudi have continued to form organizations so as to address the issue of voting. In 2005 at a municipal elections women attempted to vote but it was established that majority of these women did not have identity cards. In this case the process of involving women to take part in elections has a long way to go for it to be realized (Macfarquhar, 2011). Submission is one important aspect of a Saudi woman, women seen as minors who are supposed to submit themselves to their husbands. According to their custom, a male figure has more authority as compared to the females. In this case the females tend to seek for permission from their husbands before engaging in any activity. In the field of education they have to seek permission first before making a decision to attend schooling. Women in Arabia are also not allowed to trav el outside the country without the consent of their husbands. Currently the country introduced a cellphone monitoring system to monitor the movements of women this was put in an attempt to alert men in case their wives attempt to leave the country without their permission. Justice that is administered to children and women in South Arabia is very severe, women and children are normally subjected to detention without trial and they are not informed of the crimes that they have committed. In detention, the women are tortured and majority of them have been killed as a consequence. The penal codes for criminal activities do not consider the biological make up of an individual before administering the punishment. Physical and sexual harassment has raised alerts among the South Arabia women
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Approaches to obesity: Behavioural measures Issue for reflection: Can obesity be controlled through behavioral measures? Content brief description One of the global concern that we are facing now is obesity, not only has it increase, the prevalence rate has also doubled since 1980 (Anderson, Quinn Glanz et al., 2009). Behavioral theories suggest the increase in obesity is link with decrease physical activity and unhealthy dietary behavior and thereby altering our behavior would help to decrease risk of obesity (Heather, 2004). However, despite enormous research and interventions, the prevalence rates are still on the climb. Thus, casting doubts on behavioral approaches. This paper shall reflect on the issues on controlling obesity and practical implication in workplace setting. (99 words) Inter-relationship between theory, research and practice Theory and research In the basis of behavioural approaches, it is assumed that there is two main reasons that results in obesity epidemic, firstly, there is an imbalance in energy intake (excess) and energy output (inadequate). Secondly, these actions that contributed to the energy imbalance are learned behaviour (Jeffery et al., 2000). For example, we observe the purchase of fast food from others or advertisement, it increases our chances of buying it. If it was a learned behaviour then in order to decrease obesity rates, we should be able to acquire new behaviour to make better decisions that promote our health and well-being. It is also argued that when we engage in physical activity we are using our energy from food, however, the improvements in transportation and technological advancement has greatly reduce our level of physical activity, accounting at least 30% of the worldwide population and half of the adults in United States did not meet the recommended level of physical activity (CDC, 2007;WHO, 2009). Studies have collected epidemiological data that compared activity levels and found two associated variables with increasing trend namely, car ownership, and time spend in television viewing with obesity (Prentice Jebb, 1995). Other than the drop in energy output, it can be seen that our energy intake has increased significantly together with obesity rates. Studies show that calorie intake of food increased from of 335 calories per day for females and 168 calories for males from 1971 to 2004 (Wright et al., 2004). Moreover, within this time frame it was the bloom of economics for processed food accompanied by the increase portion size and fast-food trends, which leads to excess calorie intake, resulting in rapid weight gain (Rolls, 2007). Thus, the extra calories input might be from food choices that consist of high energy density. Practice As of workplace environment, these research has helped in developing behavioural modification program in treating obesity. Reports show that companies that adopted obesity interventions have significant improvements for the employees, and also helped the employers in decreasing absenteeism rate, job stress experience, workplace injuries and increase in work productivity in workers (Jensen, 2011; Mhurchu, Aston Jebb, 2010). These health outcomes has been revealed to be commonly experienced with obese workers (Bungum et al., 2003; Nishitani Sakakibara, 2005; Poston et al., 2011). These behavioural programs often includes the combination of self-monitoring measures such as monitoring dietary intake (e.g. diary), cues and encouragement for appropriate behaviour (e.g. extrinsic incentives) (Stuart Davis, 1972), group exercise and providing healthy meal options, as well as, equipping workers with nutritional knowledge. Moreover, employees who had adhere to the program has considerably increase their daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and reduce their fat intake from food, along with improvements in mental and physical health (Maes, Cauwenberghe Lippevelde, 2012; Hutchinson, 2011). Therefore, with a better health profile, it could help in issue of absenteeism, productivity and benefited both employers and employees. (486 words) Personal reflection For: Behavioural theories could help in controlling Obesity The Contribution of extensive research Firstly, research on behavioural approaches could aid in implementation of interventions and modification of existed programs in the workplace environment. Perhaps, we could develop a framework that identify the contributing factors of obesity in the workplace setting. Then, analysing the trend between the contributing factors and workers through survey data and using statistical methods to samples different groups (e.g. normal weight, overweight and obese employees). Next, we could design the program making sure to modify the contributing work system parameters (e.g. providing healthy food options) to create behavioural changes (e.g. ordering healthy meal) that could improve health conditions. Most employers and employees acknowledge the impact of obesity Secondly, studies have found that both employers and employees has consider weight management program at work settings to be appropriate and effective in controlling obesity (Gabel et al., 2009). These shows that employers might be concern about the rising medical cost, expenses incurred due to the loss of productivity and an increase in work injuries. Employers understand the impact of obesity that imply health cost towards employees and indirectly affecting the company as well, as such they are more willing to provide cooperate health benefits to reduce obesity. However, the employees must also have personal responsibility and discipline to attend the welfares provided. Thus, when both parties work together the chances of reducing obesity would be possible in workplace. Against: Behavioural theories does not help in controlling Obesity Obesity is genetically inherited Firstly, in contrast to the behavioural theories, researchers have also investigate the genetic approaches towards obesity epidemic. Studies have explored the chances of inheriting obesity by looking at samples of first-degree relatives, which indicated moderate association (0.20 to 0.30). In addition, they looked into samples of monozygotic twins, which results in a higher heritability rate (0.60 to 0.70), indicating that genetics have contributed approximately 25% to 40% of the variance in BMI (Price, 2002). Furthermore, early research has also discovered that the distribution of fat in body parts and individualÃ¢â¬â¢s metabolic rate are also genetically predisposed (Levine, Eberhardt Jensen, 1999). This might support the notion that obesity could not be reduce. The complexity of contributing factors to obesity Secondly, with the vast variety of potential factors that could contribute to obesity, it would be challenging to target all factors. Workplace influencers include, high job demand, insufficient sleep, lack of physical activity, stress, low job control (Parhizi, Pasupathy Steege, 2012). Likewise, while considering the workplace effects, there are additional domain such as individual difference, psychosocial factors and genetics factors that could cause further complexity to provide solution to reduce obesity rate. Additionally, there may be multiple association between factors creating the difficulties in providing optimal levels of treatment for each individual. Inconsistent interventions results Thirdly, considering most of the research being done has a significant outcome improvement in health related issues (Hutchinson, 2012). Nonetheless, when evaluating the results of interventions that included promotion of physical activity and nutritional programs in accordance to the obesity measures of BMI, fat percentage and body weight, there were inconclusive evidence of the efficacy of reduction in these areas (Vuillemin, 2011). Similarly, such studies does not identify which of the interventions are effective for specific types of employee population. For example, is there a need for two different programs for office-based workers and retail-based workers? Additionally, most of the programs does not measure its long-term effects on weight maintenance which could provide overestimation of the positive outcomes from intervention and employees might actually gained weight in the long run. Thus, the inconsistency and methodological flaws of these studies might have an impact on its efficacy level. Conclusion Obesity is drawing massive attention and growing as a health problem that consisted undesirable consequences on individualÃ¢â¬â¢s health measures such as heart diseases, diabetes and cancers. To add on, obesity also greatly influences our workplace productivity, absenteeism, work injuries and job stress. These not only have negative effects on individual level but also pressures the employers with rising healthcare cost and expenses incurred from obese employees. As a result, vast majority of studies has examine the cause of obesity, in which, the most common approach was applying behavioural modification methods such as increasing physical activity and changing dietary intake. Yet, with great effort being place in weight management programs, obesity rate is still up-trending. This provides doubts and challenge to conventional methods in combating obesity. Such that, explanation of genetics, complexity of the contributing factors, flaws and inconsistent results of interventions from studies have come to doubt the effectiveness of these methods. Final Word Overall, obesity is a health problem that has variety of contribution factors that are complex and there is no definite model or program that cater to majority of the obese community. Nevertheless, it might be possible to be able to start from the workplace setting of individual and creating little changes that hopefully decrease obesity rate overtime. (818 words) References Anderson LM, Quinn TA, Glanz K et al. (2009). The effectiveness of worksite nutrition and physical activity interventions for controlling employee overweight and obesity: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 37:340.C357. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Prevalence of regular physical activity among adults. United States. MMWR 56:1209.C1212 Gabel, Jon R, Whitmore, Heidi,Pickreign, Jeremy Pickreign, Ferguson, Christine C, Anjall Jain, Hilary Scherer. (2009). Obesity and the Workplace: Current Programs and Attitudes among Employers and Employees. Health Affairs. 28, 1. ProQuest pp. 46 Heather O. Chambliss. Behavioral Approaches to Obesity Treatment. (2004) QUEST, 56. pp.142-149 Hutchinson AD, Wilson C. (2012). Improving nutrition and physical activity in the workplace: a meta-analysis of intervention studies. Health Promotion Inter 27:238Ã ¨C249. Hutchinson AD, Wilson C.(2012).Improving nutrition and physical activity in the workplace: a meta-analysis of intervention studies. Health Promot Int 27:238Ã ¨C249. Jensen JD. (2011). Can worksite nutritional interventions improve productivity and firm profitability? A literature review. Perspect Public Health 131:184Ã ¨C192. Levine, J. A., Eberhardt, N. L., Jensen, M. D. (1999). Role of non-exercise activity thermogenesis in resistance to fat gain in humans. Science, 283, 212Ã ¨C214. Maes L, Van Cauwenberghe E, Van Lippevelde W et al..(2012).Effectiveness of workplace interventions in Europe promoting healthy eating: a systematic review. Eur J Public Health 22:677Ã ¨C683. Ni Mhurchu C, Aston LM, Jebb SA. (2010). Effects of worksite health promotion interventions on employee diets: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 10:62. Price RA. (2002). Genetics and common obesities: Background, current status, strategies, and future prospects. Wadden TA,Stunkard AJ (eds) Handbook of obesity treatment. New York: The Guilford Press Rolls BJ. (2003). The Supersizing of America: portion size and the obesity epidemic. Nutr Today 38(2):42Ã ¨C53 World Health Organization. (2009). WHO | Physical Inactivity: A Global Public Health Problem. Wright JD, Kennedy-Stephenson J, Wang CY, McDowell MA, Johnson CL. (2004). Trends in intake of energy and macronutrients. United States, 1971Ã ¨C2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53 (4): 80Ã ¨C2. PMID 14762332 Vuillemin A, Rostami C, Maes L et al.. (2011). Worksite physical activity interventions and obesity: a review of European studies (the HOPE project). Obes Facts,4:479Ã ¨C488.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Suburbanization and the Social Use of Television The 1950s can be seen as a time of unprecedented family values, in which young, white, middle-income nuclear families arrived en masse in the pre-planned community living areas of suburbia. In the article "Joyride", Kunstler identifies the reasons for, and attraction of, a grand public relocation to previously uninhabited areas outside main city centres. Kunstler argues that it was, in part, the replacement of the streetcar (or trolley), and later the automobile, from the horse-powered transit of earlier 20th century life, that ignited weekend traffic to expand outside urban centres. "Joyriding" on weekends, as Kunstler explains, made suburban areas more accessible and attractive. Suburban areas often hosted various family attractions (such as amusement parks) in which families could experience safe, clean entertainment while being removed from the chaos of the city. Two factors encouraged this "weekending" family behaviour: (1) with the introduction of the electric trolley, passengers could travel any distance at a flat rate cheaper than old horse-drawn methods; and (2) automobiles were greatly subsidized after their initial introduction, thus promoting the number of middle-class car owners. Both these factors brought large-scale transit outside of the city, making the suburbs more accessible and demanding the development of suburban communities. This major development, as described in Lynn Spiegel's article "The Suburban Home Companion", was largely driven by the concept of suburbia as a safe, clean environment (free from "undesirables" such as blacks and lower-income families) in which families could experience both an increased private and community life. This separation, Spiegel says, is what opened the opportunity for TV success. As nuclear suburban families desired to experience the "outside" world (including travel, unusual voyages etc.), they were also trapped in a homogenous communities where life was mundane, and immense pressure was put on each family in these "fair tale" towns to keep up with, and out-do, next door neighbours, and produce a consistently stable and satisfied appearance. As this suburban sprawl of the fifties took America by storm, Spiegel discusses how television provided a necessary means of escapism for frustrated families. The first television show, broadcast in 1949, was a very simple program in which a man and woman sit watching and discussing the TV. Although by today's standards this would be seen as unsurpassingly boring to audiences, this simple show provided a stress relief and easy entertainment; it seemed as though audiences enjoyed watching programs which, similar to their own situation, seemed more rewarding.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
In this age of rapidly changing technology, market-driven decision making, customer sophistication, and employee restlessness, leaders and managers are faced with new challenges. Organizations must build new structures and master new skills in order to compete and survive. As work settings become more complex and involve increased numbers of interpersonal interactions, individual effort has less impact. In order to increase efficiency and effectiveness, a group effort is required. The creation of teams has become a key strategy in many organizations. Team building is an essential element in supporting and improving the effectiveness of small groups and task forces and must be a key part of a total program of organizational change. Hellriegel, Slocum, & Woodman (1986) state that team building is used to improve the effectiveness of work groups by focusing on any of the following four purposes: setting goals and priorities, deciding on means an methods, examining the way in which the group works, and exploring the quality of working relationships. A cycle then develops; it begins with the awareness or perception of a problem and is followed sequentially by data collection, data sharing diagnosis, action planning, action implementation, and behavioral evaluation. This style is repeated as new problems are identified. Not all work groups are teams. Reilly and Jones (1974) list four essential elements of teams: goals, interdependence, commitment, and accountability. The members must have mutual goals or a reason to work together; there must be an interdependent working relationship; individuals must be committed to the group effort; and the group must be accountable to a higher level within the organization. A good example is an athletic team, whose members share goals and an overall purpose. Individual players have specific assignments they are responsible for, but each depends on the other team members to complete their assignments. Lack of commitment to the team effort reduces overall effectiveness. Finally, the team usually operates within the framework of a higher organization such a league. The overall objective of a work team is to exercise control over organizational change (functionally, this involves increased decision-making and problem-solving efforts), although a side effect may be to increase the productivity of individual members. A primary objective of team building is to increase awareness of group process. In essence, the group members will learn how to control change externally by experimenting internally. The team-building effort will concentrate on barriers to effective functioning and the selection of strategies to overcome these barriers. Organizational failures often are not a result of poor leadership but of poor followership. Few training programs teach how to be an effective member of a democratic group. A team member is one of a group of mutual followers. Observation of individuals functioning within teams leads to the following list of characteristics of an effect team member. Such a person: Understands and is committed to group goals; Is friendly, concerned, and interested in others; Acknowledges and confronts conflict openly; Listens to others with understanding; Includes others in the decision-making process; Recognizes and respects individual differences; Contributes ideas and solutions; Values the ideas and contributions of others; Recognizes and rewards team efforts; and Encourages and appreciates comments about team performance. These characteristics are in sequential pattern, alternating task and relationship behaviors. This pattern of behaviors is the starting point for the development of effective team building. Team Building is a planned change intervention that focuses on the dynamics of a teamÃ¢â¬ s functioning. The purpose of team building is to improve the teamÃ¢â¬ s capacity to adapt, allow members to function at their most productive resourceful levels, and to achieve the teams goals. In developing teams there are four different stages that must be fully accomplished in order to reach its mission through achieving higher quality in the workplace. These stages in sequence are: Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing. The first three stages of team development must be completed in order to achieve stage four. In each stage there are distinct behaviors, feelings and questions which team members can experience. In stage one, Forming, personal relations are peculiar by strength. Team members depend on considerate and imitated behavior and look to the team leader for standpoint and guidance. The conjoint or mutual feelings that are used in forming are: Excitement, expectancy, and uniformed optimism. Happy to be selected as being part of the team. Showing conditional attachment to the team. Having doubts, concerns and uncertainty about the job or the task ahead. The team members also have questions and remarks that they expect to be answered by team developers, they are: Ã¢â¬Å"Who are all these people?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone is being so polite.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"This might be kind of exciting.Ã¢â¬ An effective and efficient behavior is expected from the team leader. A leader should answer all the questions the team members have. A leader should also guide them through each step and verify the expected need of each member. A team will be formed efficiently. All of the teams ideas and goals will have a positive effect in the organization. The second stage, Norming, is characterized by cohesion within the team. Team members recognize each otherÃ¢â¬ s positions and benefits and are willing to change their preconceived ideas to achieve common consent. The common feelings that are used in Norming are: Team members have the ability to communicate without being afraid of retaliation. Team members accept their membership to the team. Feeling comfort that certain things will go the way they were planned. Team members are friendlier and they share more revealing feelings with each other. The questions and comments that are stated in Norming are: Ã¢â¬Å"How are we going to get along with each other?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What are the rules of membership?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Seems like we are all on the same track finally.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We seem to be operating more unified, and we try to avoid conflict, when possible.Ã¢â¬ In Norming, the team members finally put the fear of failure behind them. They are willing to work out any conflict that may occur. Positive and negative feedback becomes more accepting within the team. As feedback increase, members have a better understanding of where they stand and become more involved in decision making.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Oxidation Number Definition:atomcoordination compoundligandsthe oxidation numberoxidation state The oxidation number is represented by a Roman numeral. The plus sign is omitted for positive oxidation numbers. The oxidation number is seen as a superscript to the right of an element symbol (e.g., FeIII) or in parentheses after the element name [e.g., Fe(III)] usually with no space between the element name and the parentheses.
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2069 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/08/16 Category Environment Essay Level High school Tags: Volcano Essay Did you like this example? A volcano is defined, by NASA, as an opening on the surface of a planet or moon that allows material warmer than its surroundings to escape from its interior. While volcanoes are a generally thought of as a feature of Earth, there are plenty of other planets and even moons with a range of extinct, dormant, and active volcanoes in our solar system, and presumably in others as well. Once a feature has been officially defined as a volcano, it is then further classified into one of three designations, mons, tholus, and patera, based on their external presentation as defined by the International Astronomical Union, or IAU. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Extraterrestrial Volcanoes" essay for you Create order Montes are any mountains, while tholi are generally hills or small domical mountains, and paterae are irregular or complex craters with scalloped edges. The term volcano is pretty vague and many different variations on the feature can be found on a variety of different celestial objects throughout the solar system. Terrestrial Volcanoes There are four main types of volcanoes on Earth: cinder cone, composite, shield, and lava dome. Cinder cones are the simplest and happen when, over time, the lava that is spewed into the air rains back down and forms a cone with a bowl-like crater at the top. These volcanoes rarely peak much higher than 1,000 feet. Composite volcanoes are also known as stratovolcanoes and can reach thousands of meters tall. They have a system that allows for magma to be pulled from the mantle itself up to the surface, and often erupt violently, like Mount Saint Helens. Shield volcanoes are large and broad and resemble shields from above hence the name. The lava that pours out of these is thin, which allows it to travel easily down the shallow sides of the volcano, building up into many layers over thousands of small eruptions. Lava domes, or volcanic domes, are also caused by build up of lava over time, but this lava is thick, and the domes grow from the lava expanding within. These types are general ly more specific to terrestrial volcanoes, but they also serve as a base point for understanding extraterrestrial volcanoes, especially shield volcanoes. Planetary Volcanoes Mars Volcanoes can be found on all four of the terrestrial planets, but most of those found outside of the Earth are presumed to be dormant or extinct. Mars hosts the largest known volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons, which is 624 km wide, which is comparable to the size of the state of Arizona, and 25 km high, whereas Mount Everest is a little under 9 km. Most volcanoes on Mars are significantly larger than those on Earth, which can be attributed to its lack of tectonic activity. Terrestrial volcanoes are created by the shifting, and subsequent crashing, of Earths tectonic plates over top of a hot spot within the somewhat liquid mantle, and as the plates move over the hot spot multiple volcanoes are fed. Mars does not have tectonic plates or a liquid mantle, and so significantly more magma is spewed out of a singular volcano, which then piles up into a larger and larger volcano. Martian volcanoes are assumed to be extinct since the estimate for the most recent eruption on the plane t was from Arsia Mons around 50 million years ago, at around the same time as the CretaceousÃ¢â¬Å"Paleogene extinction. Volcanic activity is an integral part of Martian history and composition, even if there has not been any recent activity. Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in the solar system Artistic Rendition of a volcano erupting on Mars Arsia Mons, Mars last active volcano Venus Venus has three main types of volcanoes, two of which are found on other celestial bodies and one that is exclusive to Venus. The most prevalent volcanoes are shield volcanoes, but they tend to be wider and shorter than those on Earth and Mars, likely because of its dense atmosphere. Venus also has lava domes, but they are often referred to as pancake domes because they are significantly larger than those found on Eart, sometimes up to 100 times so. The volcanic feature that is found exclusively on Venus is called a corona, which is an upwelling of material from the mantle that contains and is surrounded by volcanoes and lava flows. There is plenty of evidence of past volcanic activity on Venus, but is also the only other planet in the solar system, aside from Earth, thought to be actively volcanic. Current volcanic activity on Venus would explain the frequent flux in sulfur dioxide above the clouds, as well as the bursts of radio energy that occasionally observed coming from the pla net, but until some volcanic activity is observed, Venus cannot be classified as active. Nasa Image of Sapas Mons, a Venusian Volcano An Image of Venuss Pancake Domes A Computer generated view of a Venusian volcano from 1995 Mercury Mercury has not been volcanically active for around 3.5 billion years, but there is proof on the planet of volcanoes in its past. Mercury has a very small mantle, which is the part of terrestrial planets that produce the energy needed for volcanic activity through radioactive decay, and so it lost its internal heat much faster and its volcanism much earlier than the other planets. However, there are extensive smooth plains on Mercury, similar to the Lunas maria, where, billions of years ago, lava flowed across the surface and filled in the depressions. These smooth plains prove that at one point there was volcanic activity on Mercury, even if it has long since ended. Lunar Volcanoes Luna The volcanoes on Luna, Earths very own moon, seem to have been dormant for about a billion years, but the maria covering a significant amount of the near side of the moon is proof that there once was volcanic activity. These seas are similar to large parking lots, paved over and flattened out by lava flows earlier in the Moons life. Their location solely on the near side of the Moon implies that the volcanic activity was impacted in some way by the Earth, and adds another layer to the relationship between the two celestial bodies. Recently there has also been the discovery of Irregular Mare Patches, or IMPs, which are smaller spots on Luna that appear to be the product of volcanic activity, but some seem to be as young as 50 million years old. These IMPs mean that there could have been active volcanoes on the Moon during the time of the dinosaurs, and changes our perspective on the evolution of Luna. This also means that the interior of the Moon is likely warmer and possibly less dea d than we previously believed. The darker sections are the maria, evidence of a volcanic history for Luna A close up of a volcano on Io, taken from the Galileo spacecraft Jupiters moon Io has a very colorful exterior due to its volcanism Io Io is the most volcanically active object in the Solar system and thereby has the youngest surface, which is ironic when considering that its fellow Jovian moon Callisto has the oldest. Ios volcanism is a product of its location, being the closest of the Galilean Moons to their host planet Jupiter. Tidal forces from Jupiter are competing with tidal forces from Ganymede and Europa, two of the other Galilean Moons that are in resonance with Io, and these fighting forces cause Ios orbit to be highly eccentric. This eccentric orbit causes Io to flex as it revolves around Jupiter, and this flexing heats the moon in a process known as tidal heating. This heat is what allows for Ios volcanism, although the specifics of how it works are still being researched. Cryovolcanoes There are also some places in space that have ice volcanoes, known as cryovolcanoes, that instead of spewing out molten rock erupt volatiles, which are chemical compounds and elements with low boiling points. Cryovolcanoes happen on items further out from the sun, where it is cold enough for their surface to freeze, and there are several theories on the different methods these objects use to keep their internal temperature high enough to contain liquid. One seen in most moons with cryovolcanoes is tidal friction that stretches the planet enough to warm its core and give it a liquid interior, but there are other possibilities as well. Enceladus Enceladus is a moon of Saturn, a possible home for life, and a host of what seems to be at least one cryovolcano. On its southern pole, the moon spews out a plume of mostly water from spots within its Tiger Stripes, which are four large, linear depressions on the surface of the planet. This liquid water is believed to come from an internal ocean under the icy outer layer of Enceladus, and it is believed that Saturns tidal friction is keeping it warm enough to remain in a liquid state. This cryovolcanic activity is actually the cause of Saturns E ring, as the water freezes into chunks of ice and begins to orbit Saturn along with Enceladus. Enceladus, Saturns 6 largest moon A false-color view of Enceladuss plumes Enceladus eruption as captured by Cassini Titans thick haze and nearly opaque atmosphere make it seem featureless A topographic computer model of Sotra Facula, an apparent cryovolcano on Titan The south pole of Triton, Neptunes largest moon An artists rendition of volcanoes on Triton Titan Titan is Saturns largest moon, the second largest moon in the solar system, the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere, and is also believed to have cryovolcanic activity. The thick haze surrounding the planet and its nearly opaque atmosphere make Titans surface very difficult to study, but recent flyby missions have suggested that volcanic activity is a highly likely possibility. Volcanic activity would explain the continuous supply of fresh methane found in Titans atmosphere, and what seems to be lava flow surrounding mountains on the moon. Although there is currently no concrete evidence that Titan has volcanic activity, or that it is of the cryo variety, there is no concrete evidence to prove the reverse, either. Triton Triton is the largest moon of Neptune, and when Voyager 2 did a flyby of the moon in 1989 it discovered that it, too, has cryovolcanoes that are spewing nitrogen and ice 8 km into space. Little is known about the internal workings of these volcanoes because of the moons distance from Earth, but it has been observed being actively cryovolcanic. Pluto When the New Horizons space probe was launched in 2006, astronomers expected to find Pluto and its moon Charon to be icy wastelands, just hunks of frozen rock floating out in the Kuiper Belt. They were shocked when they found a high level of geologic activity on the two objects, and evidence of possible cryovolcanoes. There are two obvious spots on Pluto that are being looked into as volcanoes, Wright Mons and Piccard Mons, which appear similar to Mars volcanoes. This is the first time features like this have been found on celestial bodies that are not terrestrial planets, and if they are indeed cryovolcanoes, this could change everything we know about them. Pluto, taken by the New Horizons space probe Wright Mons, a possible cryovolcano on Pluto Charon, as taken by the New Horizons space probe An Artists rendition of a cryovolcano on Charon Volcanoes are found on celestial bodies all throughout the solar system, and as space continues to be explored, new types of volcanoes are discovered. They differ in every possible way, from size to eruption composition, to formation, but they all tell a story about an active and constantly evolving solar system, and by extension, universe. 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